Internet: Who Invented the It? How Did It Evolve?

How the Internet got to this point today is a complex and long story. No one has planned where the internet is today. Then, the internet was born in 1931, led by computer scientists like Vannevar Bush and J.C.R Licklider. The network has grown quietly for three decades under the guidance of Jon Postel and others. Then, in the 1990s, the World Wide Web appeared. The Internet spread around the world [2].

Marty Licklider at WICA broadcasting booth, Lake Shore Park, circa 1957
Marty Licklider at WICA broadcasting booth, Lake Shore Park, circa 1957

World Wide Web: A text system developed in the 1990s to link and display information [1].

How Did The Internet Need Arise?

The first written communication was provided by ambassadors. With the development of great empires such as Persia, Rome, and China, communication gained importance due to defense. So, structures such as the Great Wall of China and the Roman Hadrian’s Wall used for communication rather than defense. In addition, the ideas of collating, sequencing, directing, and securing information would be a fundamental feature of the Internet in the Roman Empire [2].

The development of the printing press in the 15th century facilitated the development of publishing. Then, publishing provided by the printing press became the basis for newsgroups and Web sites [2]. Visual signals used using reflected sunlight, fire, smoke, or signal flags on Roman and Chinese roads. So, separating an encoded message into individual characters that are transmitted and decoded was an important concept in laying the foundations of the Internet [2].

Software

Internet in The Early 19th Century

In the first half of the 19th century, inventors such as Sir Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse obtained patents on electric telegraph systems. Morse, Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, built a 35-mile show system. “What has God done”, the first message about this system in 1844, can be considered as the first e-mail (e-mail) message in a sense [2].

Also in the first half of the 19th century, Charles Babbage designed a mechanical calculator with its own different engine. He designed an analytical engine that considered the first programmable prototype, but he didn’t. Then, Mathematician Ada Lovelace designed and published a set of procedures for the analytical engine to calculate the mathematical sequence known as Bernoulli numbers. This procedure of Lady Lovelace can be considered as one of the first computer programs in a sense [2].

Internet in the 1960s

It was the first concept of the internet, a type of encryption method where information transmitted is divided into small packets of information and labeled to identify the sender and receiver. As a result, these information packets sent over a network and then reassembled at the destination. In the early 1960s, several papers were written on packet switching theory, which forms the basis of the computer network that exists today [2].

The recruitment of J.C.R Licklider as a US Air Force psychoacoustic and behavioral scientist in 1961 contributed significantly to the development of ARPANET [1].

For the ARPANET in 1969, the BBN Interface Message Processor (IMP) did the packet routing
For the ARPANET in 1969, the BBN Interface Message Processor (IMP) did the packet routing

ARPANET

It is the name given to the first packet distribution network prepared by the Advanced Defense Research Projects Unit of the US Department of Defense from 1969 to 1990 [1].

The Internet Protocol (TCD/IP), which is a set of rules governing ARPANET communication and networks, created during these years. The term “Internet” was first used to describe ARPANET. In 1980, Vinton Cerf proposed a scheme for cross-networking consisting of several physical networks. TCP/IP was used to route information between networks [2].

Internet in the 1990s


It was the most influential development in the growth of the Internet in the 1990s, and many business organizations went online. So, uniform resource finders (URLs) appeared in television commercials, and for the first time, significant numbers of young children were online. Graphics scanning tools developed, and the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) programming language allowed users all over the world to post on the World Wide Web.

In addition, millions of people have gone online to work, shop, open bank accounts, and have fun. So, the Internet has played a much more important role in society as many non-technical users from all walks of life are dealing with computers. Computer literacy and internet courses have started all over the country [2].

What Happened in 1990-2000?

• Gopher, 1991—Gopher developed at the University of Minnesota with the Golden Gopher as the sports team’s mascot. After that, Gopher allowed you to “search” or fetch files from the Internet using a menu-based system. Many ground squirrels spread all over the country and all kinds of information can found on squirrel servers. Gopher is still available today and can be accessed via Web browsers, but its popularity has waned [2].


• World Wide Web Public, 1992—The interesting nature of the Web caused it to spread, and it became public in 1992. So, the first users of the system were immediately impressed [2].


• Mosaic, 1993—Mosaic, a graphical browser for the web, released by Marc Andreessen and several other graduate students at the University of Illinois, where one of the National Science Foundation’s supercomputing centers is located. Mosaic was first released under X Windows and graphical UNIX. It seems that everyone who used the system liked it and told it to five of their friends. The use of mosaic spread rapidly [2].


• Netscape Communications, 1994—Netscape Communications, founded by Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark, released Netscape Navigator. This Web browser has captured the imagination of everyone who uses it. The number of users of this piece of software has grown at a phenomenal rate. With them, Netscape has made (and still makes) its money largely by displaying advertisements on its Web pages.

Windows 95

And Late 20th Century

• Yahoo!, 1994—Stanford graduate students David Filo and Jerry Yang now use the world-renowned Internet search engine and Yahoo! [2nd].


• Java, 1995—The Internet programming environment Java released by Sun Microsystems. Because originally called Oak, this language allowed programmers to develop more interactive Web pages [2].


• Microsoft and the Internet, 1995—Microsoft became involved in the Internet by developing the Microsoft Internet Explorer (MIE) browser Internet, Overview 669, and other Internet applications. After that, the “browser wars” began with various browsers competing for market share. Netscape Navigator and MIE are the last two big players standing [2].


• Over 55 Million Nodes, 1999—The number of Internet hosts rose to 55,000,000 [2].

Internet in The 2000s


• “I Love You Virus” 2000—The “I Love You Virus” spread from the Philippines and infected millions of computers worldwide [2].


• Google Indexes Over 1.3 Billion Web Pages, 2001—The Google search engine claims to be a massive index of over 1.3 billion Web pages [2].


• Wireless Devices, 2001—Many people now surf the Web and send e-mail over the Internet using wireless computer technology [2].


The Internet continues to grow 100% every year; The number of computers connected to the Internet is now over 100 million and growing. So, this growth has demonstrated that the Internet is versatile and flexible. Then, Frankly, the early researchers working on Internet technology had no idea that what they were designing would host the World Wide Web and other applications for millions of users.

CODS

In retrospect, there were several key reasons for the great success of the Internet:


1. Decisions took on a technical rather than a political basis, especially without the need for international political groups.
2. The Internet did not need a centralized structure that would not scale; It was and is a distributed operation.
3. Homogeneity of language and appearance, sharp focus, and sustainability of the internet itself.
4. The Internet has allowed people to do intrinsically interesting things, such as sending and receiving e-mail.
5. Related software was free or very low cost. The Internet will continue to grow, change and support new applications. But now we see entrepreneurs and politicians involved rather than researchers initiating change and bringing new ideas to life. Both small and large businesses will play an important role in setting new trends [2].

[1]: The Internet, History and Development of Henry Edward Hardy Computer Consultant, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

[2]: Raymond Greenlaw Ellen M. Hepp, Internet Owerviev

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