The physical sciences deal with the basic fundamental principles of healthy physics. That is the basis of other physical sciences (chemistry, astronomy, geology…). It simply symbolizes fundamental physical theories with few basic concepts, equations, and assumptions. It changes and expands our view of our surroundings with the concepts and equations it defines. Physics is a fundamental science that studies nature. That’s why physics means ‘nature’ in Ancient Greek. This branch of science, which is a product of philosophy, was called ‘natural philosophy until the 19th century. Issac Newton called physics
According to Issac Newton;
This means that even today, nature still has unexplored points…
Physics examines nature from 5 different aspects. These;
- Classical Mechanics: It studies the motion of objects larger than atoms and moving at a speed much less than the speed of light.
- The Theory of Relativity: It studies the motion of objects at any speed, or at speeds close to the speed of light.
- Thermodynamics: It studies heat, work temperature, and the behavior of many particles.
- Electromagnetism: It deals with electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic fields.
- Quantum Mechanics: It covers all theories dealing with the behavior of particles at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels.
Classical physics helps us to understand and describe mechanical systems. It describes natural phenomena such as energy systems, heat transfer, conservation of energy and momentum. The laws of conservation of energy and momentum are important to the foundations of modern physical theories. Classical mechanics (which is the fundamental branch of Classical physics) is also very successful in describing the motion of material objects such as planets, rockets, baseballs.
There are several branches of classic mechanics, but the branches of mechanics and electromagnetism form the basis of classical and modern physics. Classic mechanics is based on all the laws of mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism developed before 1900. And the basis of these laws was laid by Isaac Newton . This is why classical mechanics is also called Newtonian physics. Newton was the first researcher to theorize classical mechanics and to use mathematics as a tool in his calculations. Although classical mechanics continued to develop in the 18th century, it did not develop until the end of the 19th century. The reason for this was insufficient tools and equipment for the experiments.
It, called the new age in physics, was born towards the end of the 19th century. Modern physics emerged as classical physics could not explain many events. In this process, the most important development is quantum and relativity theory. Einstein’s theory of relativity took the traditional notions of space, time and energy to a different level.
Quantum mechanics, on the other hand, provided the definition of physical events in both material and atomic dimensions, including classical mechanics. So,Max Planck shook the foundations of modern physics with blackbody radiation and the idea that energy is continuous. Planck made the radical assumption that energy is quantized and discontinuous. Thus, quantum theory was born. The world of physics, which has gained a different dimension, has tended to examine and understand nature on a microscopic scale. Today, there are still unexplained natural events, and perhaps the human race will not be able to achieve this. If you want to understand the theories of quantum mechanics in more detail, you can find information here.