Nuclear weapons basically can be classified; as atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, the neutron bomb. But, before going into the details of these weapons, it is necessary to explain some titles.
- What is the meaning of the ‘Nuclear’
It doesn’t exactly describe the word core or center. But, it describes the organized events that develop around or within the nucleus. If we talk about nuclear chemistry, we understand the nucleus of an atom. This term uses in biology as ‘nuclear DNA’.
- What is U-235 and Pu-239 ?
U represents the elements Uranium Pu and Plutonium. 235 and 239 represent atomic weights. We can take Uranium from nature. But we can’t do it for Plutonium. Because Plutonium produces from Uranium. So, the world’s largest uranium reserves are located in Australia. Uranium and plutonium are ‘radioactive’ elements that emit radiation. So, U-235 and Pu-239 are in nuclear weapons. Because they create a nuclear chain reaction. Pu-239 was used in the atomic bomb dropped on the city of Nagasaki, and U-235 was used in the atomic bomb dropped on the city of Hiroshima.
- What is fission and fusion?
The splitting of atomic nuclei is called fission. It is known that when slow (low-energy) neutrons are sent to the nucleus of U-235 atoms, the nucleus immediately splits into two parts and a lot of energy is released during this time.
It is the fusion of light atomic nuclei to form a single nucleus. This event usually takes place between hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and tritium).
How Nuclear Armament Began?
The Manhattan Project was carried out as part of the Second World War. This project was led by the United States. But the UK and Canada also supported this project. Nuclear weapons were produced under this project. It was at this time that Enrico Fermi developed the first nuclear reactor. This reactor was to verify that a self-sustaining chain reaction was possible. It would also produce Plutonium for use in a powerful weapon. As a result of these studies, America tested the first atomic bomb (trinity) in New Mexico. The United States produced the next atomic bomb for the Japanese city of Nagasaki. They named the plutonium-derived atomic bomb ‘Fat Man’. Prior to that, the U-235-based atomic bomb ‘Little Boy’ was for the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Thus began the process of nuclear armament. Today, there are nuclear bombs that are much more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and they continue to evolve.
The atomic (nuclear) bomb works on the fission principle. That is, enriched uranium and pluto are used as fuel in atomic bombs. As we mentioned above, uranium and plutonium are radioactive elements. Thus, their stability is low and can react quickly. Therefore, when high temperature and pressure are applied to these elements, they form a chain reaction and explosions occur. The nuclear bomb gives the effect of detonating 13 or 14 thousand TNT. So an atomic bomb can destroy a city.
So which countries in the world have nuclear bombs? United States, China, Russia, North Korea, India, Pakistan, France, and England.
Hydrojen Bombs(Thermonuclear Bombs)
Hydrogen bombs can be call the Thermonuclear bomb. Hydrogen bombs work reverses according to nuclear(atomic) bombs. So, It follows the fusion principle. If we want the active atomic bomb, we must break into pieces uranium or plutonium nucleus. But in a hydrogen bomb, we must fuse hydrogen nuclei. Fusion exposes very stronger reaction than fission. So, a hydrogen bomb is 3000 times stronger than an atomic bomb. We can emphasize this situation like this, the hydrogen bomb doesn’t active without the atomic bomb. So, nuclear bombs only can be a trigger for a hydrogen bomb. So which countries have a hydrogen bomb. USA, Russia, and China.
The neutron bomb is the deadliest weapon ever developed by humanity. Neutron bombs do not cause destruction like hydrogen and atomic bombs. In other words, if a neutron bomb explodes a few streets away, nothing will be destroyed around you. That is, when neutron bombs explode, they emit neutrons with very high energy charges. In addition, neutron bombs work on the fusion principle. The number of neutrons they emit is indescribable. And these neutrons shatter people’s DNA chains. As a result, you soon begin to feel dizzy and vomit a lot. Scars begin to form on the skin on your face. Death occurs in approximately 2 hours to 2 weeks. So we can call the neutron bomb a biological weapon. So who has these guns? United States, Russia, China.
Despite the development of a weapon as deadly as the neutron bomb, even more, deadly weapons can still be studied. Anti-matter bomb. It is said that an anti-matter bomb can destroy another planet. It’s really scary. If this subject interests you, we can discuss the anti-matter bomb in a more technical and understandable way in our other article. Waiting for your comments…