Uncertainty occupies a very large place in our life. We often complain about this situation. What if this uncertainty is the nature of the smallest particle of all life, the entire universe? and if the uncertainty of these particles affects our whole life? Our inability to hammer a nail into a position in the universe may be a gift from our particles 😉

The uncertainty principle was introduced by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg. Heisenberg says that the position of a particle in wave motion cannot be determined. To understand the uncertainty principle, we need to understand wave-particle motions. You can reach this subject from here.

## Uncertainty of WHAT?

Matter exhibits both wave and particle motion. This discovery changed the understanding of electromagnetic radiation. It also shook the foundations of classical physics. In classical physics, the way and direction of each particle are obvious at every moment. However, we cannot determine when the particle behaves like a wave. However, we cannot determine when the particle behaves like a wave. Consider the wave on a vibrating guitar string. The wave travels along the wire and does not stop at a certain point. Every particle with definite linear momentum has a definite wavelength. However, since we cannot locate a wave, we cannot locate a particle with momentum. This explains why matter cannot rotate in a certain orbit around a hydrogen atom due to its dual nature. That is, the constantly used model of electrons revolving around the atom is completely wrong.

### Complementarity state

Even if we know that a particle is here for one moment, we cannot say for sure where it will be for another moment. Conversely, although we know the linear momentum of a particle, we cannot know its exact location(Complementarity state). German scientist Werner Heisenberg defined the uncertainty principle in 1927. Heisenberg expressed this principle as a state of complementarity quantitatively. According to this principle, if we know the location of a particle with uncertainty ∆x, we can know the linear momentum (p) parallel to the x-axis can only with uncertainty ∆p. We express this relationship between the two as in the image. Moreover, we use The h with a dash is a useful association in quantum mechanics. Stands for h/2pi. And ‘h’ is Planck constant.

General Chemistry; Peter ATKINS, Loretta JONES